The most common approach for the charge recombination minimization is through the surface modification with metal nanoparticles, non-metals, semiconductor coupling, and hybridizing with carbon materials. In the present decade, the surface modification of TiO2 with noble metal nanoparticles such as gold (Au) have been regarded as an attractive approach to boost the efficiency
of solar cells. The main role of these noble metal nanoparticles in solar cells is the increased optical absorption due to surface plasmon resonance. Other beneficial properties of Au nanoparticles include improvement in the interfacial charge transfer process, and minimization of the charge recombination. In this study, Au nanoparticles were incorporated in TiO2 to take the advantage of the previous mentioned characteristics. Hence a planar solar cell device of CsPbBr3 quantum dots was fabricated and compared to the control one without Au nanoparticles. CsPbBr3 quantum dots were deposited on a layer of TiO2 as reported by Kamat et al. The performance improvement of the device with incorporated Au nanoparticles was observed, mainly due to higher JSC.
 S. P. Lim, A. Pandikumar, N. M. Huang, H. N. Lim, RSC Adv. 2015, 5, 44398–44407.
 Y.-Y. Li, J.-G. Wang, X.-R. Liu, C. Shen, K. Xie, B. Wei, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2017, 9, 31691–31698.
 J. B. Hoffman, G. Zaiats, I. Wappes, P. V. Kamat, Chem. Mater. 2017, 29, 9767–9774.