An integrated self-powered dynamic displacement monitoring system by utilizing a novel triboelectric accelerometer for structural health monitoring is proposed and implemented in this study. Based on the non-contact free-standing triboelectric nanogenerator, we developed a novel self-powered accelerometer sensor with the sleeve-tube structure. We also applied the accelerometer to monitor the infrastructure health, by developing a real-time bridge displacement monitoring system. The fabricated triboelectric accelerometer consisted of an outer transparent sleeve-tube as a relative static part and an inner cylindrical inertial mass as the moving part that was suspended by a highly stretchable silicone fiber. One pair of copper film electrodes was deposited by Physical Vapor Deposition on Nylon film and adhered on the inner wall of the outer tube, while a Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene film with nanowire structures was adhered on the surface of the inner cylindrical inertial mass. The experimental results show that the voltage of the fabricated self-powered accelerometer is directly proportional to the vibration acceleration. In particular, the developed accelerometer has superior performance within the low frequency range compared with the commercial piezoelectric accelerometer. One of the most striking features is that the commercial accelerometer using piezoelectric material is strongly dominated by high order harmonics, which can cause confusion in computer data analysis. In contrast, the triboelectric accelerometer is only dominated by the base resonance mode. So the proposed monitoring system can accurately show the dynamic displacement and transmit the alarming signal if the vibrational displacement of the bridge exceeds the predefined safety threshold.