Nowadays, large-scale energy storage systems have attracted much attention because of the globe demand for renewable and sustainable energy. Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) have been widely used in portable electronics and electric cars owing to their high energy density. However, the high cost of lithium resource limits their application in large-scale energy storage systems. Recently, sodium-ion batteries (NIBs) have been considered as potential alternatives to LIBs due to the low cost of sodium resources. To develop the ability of NIBs in large-scale energy storage systems, researchers are focusing on developing low-cost raw materials as high-performance electrodes. Carbonaceous materials are the most promising anode materials owing to their low cost and sustainability. Hard carbon which has large interlayer distance and disordered orientation have been attracting much attention because of their high capacity among the carbonaceous materials.
In our study, we focus on biomass waste product derived hard carbons as anode materials for NIBs owing to their low cost and environmental friendly. Various biomass waste products were studied in this work, and several activation agents were carried out in order to prepare high-surface-area hard carbons. The surface area and microstructure of these biomass waste product derived hard carbons were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analyzer and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The electrochemical properties were measured by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge cycle measurements. High capacity of around 300 mA h g-1 was achieved with good cycling stability, indicating that biomass waste product derived hard carbons are promising anode materials for NIBs in large-scale energy storage applications.