Since the isolation of monolayer of graphene,(1) two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted significant interest due to their exceptional properties and widespread range of applications. Among several existing 2D materials, a family of 2D transitional metal-based carbides and nitrides, known as MXenes (2). The MXene family has been growing and there are already more than 20 synthesized members (3). The interest in the MXenes originates from their metallic conductivity and hydrophilicity of functionalized surface.
Here, we report on a scalable synthesis and processing of titanium-based carbide and carbonitrides MXenes (Ti2C, Ti3C2, and Ti3CN) made using minimally intensive layer delamination (MILD) approach. Up to 100 g of MXenes can be synthesized per single batch and can be processable into a liter-size and surfactant-free aqueous colloidal solution containing large flakes from 1-10 µm in lateral size. Moreover, these colloidal solutions can be processed into flexible MXene papers with high electrical conductivity (~ 10,000 S/cm for Ti3C2). The MILD synthesis approach improves the quality of MXenes, efficiency of the current synthesis methods, and scalability in production.
1. K. S. Novoselov et al., Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films. Science 306, 666-669 (2004).
2. B. Anasori, M. R. Lukatskaya, Y. Gogotsi, 2D metal carbides and nitrides (MXenes) for energy storage. Nat. Rev. Mate. 2, 16098 (2017).
3. M. Alhabeb et al., Guidelines for Synthesis and Processing of Two-Dimensional Titanium Carbide (Ti3C2Tx MXene). Chem. of Mate. 29, 7633-7644 (2017).