The development of biomaterials to accelerate bone repair without impairing bone quality and achieve ideal graft properties during the filling of bone defects is a field facing constant challenges. Therefore, biomaterials and medications are under continuous development in order to face this demand. This study proposes to evaluate, by means of microtomographic analysis, the topical potential of raloxifene combined with BioGran® through the sonochemical method in the repair of critical bone defects. Among the biomaterials described in the literature, BioGran®, an alloplastic material composed of bioactive glass, was chosen for this research because the positive results of its osteoconductive properties. Otherwise, raloxifene is a selective modulator of estrogen receptors (Evista®, Lilly, USA) and has been systemically used targeting the endogenous regulation of the complex osteogenesis vs osteoclastogenesis.
In this contribution, a bone defect was induced in three groups: CTR (100% BioGran®); RAL10 (90% BioGran® and 10% raloxifene) and RAL20 (80% BioGran® and 20% raloxifene), in addition to these groups, others involving different sonication times were created to evaluate the sonicated particles at 15, 30, 45 and 90 minutes. The animals were euthanized after 30 days and the microCT analysis was then performed to evaluate the parameters bone volume (BV), bone volume percentage (BV/TV), trabecular bone thickness (Tb.Th), and the separation and number of trabeculae (Tb.Sp and Tb.N). For the evaluation of the biomaterial the same passed through the process of scanning electron microscopy. The obtained results were compared using ANOVA and Tukey test (p<0.05). the best results were found for the CTR and RAL20 groups, in which the BV, BV / TV, Tb.Sp and Tb.N parameters were statistically significant in comparison with RAL10 (p <0.05). In the homogenization of the biomaterial, evaluated by the scanning electron microscopy technique, it was possible to observe that the bioglass morphology of CTR and RAL20 presented different sizes of bioglass granules. In view of the results obtained in this experiment, we can conclude that BioGran® alone or in an 80/20 mass concentration with raloxifene can lead to favorable bone formation.