The acceleration of materials discovery would lead into immediate benefits for a variety of sectors including the energy sector, healthcare, transportation, etc. Currently, materials discovery is an expensive process that is driven by human intuition. Can robots and artificial intelligence aid humans in accelerating this process? Recently, I co-led with Kristin Persson (UC Berkeley) a workshop in Mexico City under the Mission Innovation Platform to discuss the challenges associated with this transition. The resulting report for Innovation Challenge 6 came up with six challenge areas for materials discovery. I will describe the challenges discovered by the workshop participants and will describe them with research examples from several groups including mine. I will se the inverse design of materials as an illustrative example.