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SM05.05.10 : 3D Printed PLA/ PCL/TiO2 Composite for Bone Replacement and Grafting

5:00 PM–7:00 PM Apr 5, 2018

PCC North, 300 Level, Exhibit Hall C-E

Description
Sandra Najera Beltran1 Monica Michel1 Namsoo Kim1

1, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas, United States

A material that mimics the properties of bones was developed by optimizing the ratio of polymer composites of Polylactic acid (PLA) and poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL), and containing small amounts of titanium oxide (TiO2). Although titanium-based alloys have commonly been used for bone replacement procedures due to their biocompatibility with the human body and their mechanical properties, stress shielding continues to be a problem. The structure of a bone has a porosity which permits the flow of nutrients, blood, oxygen and minerals, and is an issue at the time of creating bone replacements using conventional methods. PLA and PCL have been used in biomedical applications due to their biocompatibility with the human body and their mechanical properties in vivo. PLA and PCL provide strength to the artificial cancellous bone supplying the initial support, and allowing the gradual degradation desired in the human body. In this work the polymer composite materials were prepared, then the filaments used to print the 3D structures using Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), after which their mechanical properties and biocompatibility were tested. Different characterization methods were used, such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), tensile testing, shore hardness, and scanning electron microscopy, and the effect of the filler was evaluated. DSC analysis yielded useful information regarding the immiscibility of the different polymers, and it was observed that the presence of PCL in the blend does not affect the melting temperature of PLA, but it increases the crystallinity of the blend. In addition, the particles of TiO2 have improved the stability of PLA, showing no effect in the melting temperature through the enhanced interaction between PLA and the particles. The prepared composites demonstrated good biocompatibility, as cell growth was significantly higher in the PLA/PCL/TiO2 composites than in the blend without TiO2. The printed composites using FDM show excellent in vitro biocompatibility including cell proliferation, adhesion and osteoblast differentiation and are therefore promising candidates to be used in the field of bio-medical applications. Furthermore, PLA/PCL composites infused with TiO2 seem to be a good option specifically for bone replacement procedures, since the mechanical properties of PLA/PCL/TiO2 composites are similar to the cancellous bones making them a viable option for bone replacement and grafting procedures.

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