2, University of Hassan II, Casablanca, , Morocco
The systems used in EMR applications are very strongly impacted by environmental conditions during their installation, operation or maintenance phase. The optimization of their functioning and their dimensioning can only be done by controlling the interaction between the medium and the components or structures of the systems. Thus, the development of numerical and experimental tools and methodologies capable of simulating the impact of wind, wave, current and behavior of these systems in a coupled way constitutes a major dimensioning challenge. The validation of these sizing processes is made possible by in-situ measurement, which requires a strategy adapted to the application envisaged. This aspect constitutes a major stake at the dawn of the deployment of pilot farms of fixed and laid wind turbines and prototype of hydro-turbines. Indeed, the aim of this phase is to validate the choice of a solution and to identify the optimization paths that will allow to go on the commercial phase with a substantial gain of LCOE (Levelized Cost of Energy).
The recovery of energy from the kinetics of marine or river currents is particularly interesting because it constitutes an immense and almost inexhaustible source. By installing marine or inland waterways, it is possible to recover some of this kinetic energy. During operation and taking into account the fluid - structure couplings, the machines are generally stressed by cyclic mechanical forces, repeated shocks and / or progressive rotation. The goals of structural service, machine efficiency and turbine performance pose significant challenges for designers, mechanics of solids and fluids.
Wind turbines and hydro-wind turbines are the two most advanced technologies, but the hydro-turbines still require optimization studies. In particular, the blades and the nozzle are on the critical path of machine life. Thus, they should be designed as safely as possible and be able to withstand the applied loads and the hostile environment. It has become common practice to find structural parts of composite materials such as blades, nozzles, etc. on energy recovery techniques. Moreover, the behavior of composites in service (shock, fatigue) remains difficult to predict.
The aim is to equip design departments with the dimensioning of composite structures with tools enabling them to choose materials (fiber / matrix), fibrous architectures (tablecloth, fabrics), stacking sequence of strata minimizing sensitivity to applied loads of working structures.