2, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States
3, Harvard University (current address), Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
Multifunctional three-dimensional (3D) nano-architectures integrating all components of an entire device within tens of nanometers are intriguing for next generation energy storage, but have remained challenging to achieve. The lack of appropriate synthesis methods with precise spatial control over multiple distinct materials' phases in 3D on the nanoscale is a key issue holding back the development of such intricate architectures. Here we present chemical pathways to such systems based on the bottom-up synthesis of penta-continuous nanohybrid monoliths with four functional components integrated in a triblock terpolymer derived core-shell double gyroid architecture. Two distinct 3D interpenetrating redox-active cathode electrode and current collector networks are separated by continuous ultrathin polymer electrolyte shells from a carbon anode. All periodically ordered domains are less than 20 nm in their layer dimensions and integrated throughout the macroscopic monolith. Initial electrochemical measurements exhibit reversible battery-like charge-discharge characteristics with orders of magnitude decreases in footprint area over theoretical flat, three layer designs.
Reference: J. G. Werner, G. G. Rodríguez-Calero, H. D. Abruña, U. Wiesner, Block Copolymer Derived Multifunctional Gyroidal Monoliths for 3-D Electrical Energy Storage Applications, arXiv (2017), asXiv:1706.02134 [physics.chem-ph].