Dielectric polymer nanocomposites comprising one dimensional (1D) high-k nanowires have received strong interest because of their potential application in electrical energy storage. However, the large contrast in dielectric constant/electrical conductivity between polymer and nanowires usually result in low breakdown strength and high dielectric loss, leading to lower capability of electrical energy storage. Engineering the high-k nanowires surface can tailor the interfacial region of the nanocomposites, leading to significantly enhanced electrical energy storage capability. This work summarize the recent progress on the role of surface engineering in electrical energy storage of 1D high-k nanowires based dielectric polymer nanocomposites, including bio-inspired organic coating and inorganic coating. It was found that one can optimize the electrical energy storage capability of the nanocomposites by enhancing the matrix/nanowires compatibility, adjusting the coating layer thickness and tailoring the dielectric constant/electrical conductivity of the coating layer. The methods provided in this presentation offer important clues to design and fabricate high-energy-density polymer nanocomposites.