In past decades many materials, capable of converting solar energy into usable electrical energy, have been developed in order to increase the efficiency of energy conversion. Several of those materials are already mature enough to have made it to the mass market including monocrystalline and polycrystalline silicon, as well as several thin-film materials such as Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) and Copper Indium Gallium Arsenide (CIGS). The efficiency of these materials is still increasing and in some cases approaching the Shockley-Queisser limit. However, real-life outdoor illumination and climate conditions lead to performance of many solar cells that is significantly below the performance under standard test conditions (AM1.5G, 1 kW/m2, 25oC). These differences arise due to varying solar spectrum, light intensity, and temperature which all have an influence on the solar cell performance. We developed a model for modelling the efficiency of a perovskite/Si tandem solar cell under realistic conditions. Here we present an extension of this model for CdTe and CIGS photovoltaic materials and validate the model with recorded data from our solar field in Amsterdam, NL. We show that the measured performances of the solar field are in good agreement with the modeled ones. We further use our modelling tool to predict real-life efficiencies of many photovoltaic materials and predict the important optimizing parameters in order to increase realistic performance.
 Futscher, M. H., & Ehrler, B. (2017). Modeling the Performance Limitations and Prospects of Perovskite/Si Tandem Solar Cells under Realistic Operating Conditions. ACS Energy Letters, 2(9), 2089-2095.