Progress over the past decade in the chemistry of covalent organic frameworks (COFs) has generated a diversity of ordered organic structures with various chemical compositions. The ordered skeletons and aligned open channels make 2D COFs an intriguing platform to explore well-defined catalysts in the sense that if catalytic sites can be successfully integrated to the frameworks. We developed three different approaches to catalytic COFs. The first strategy is to integrate building units that possess catalytic sites into the skeletons; by this method we developed photocatalytic systems. The second way is based on pore surface engineering that enables postsynthetic integration of catalytic sites onto the channel walls of COF; using this approach, we explored organocatalytic systems for promoting asymmetric transformation. The third tactic is using templated carbonization of COFs to achieve conducting catalytic carbons; with this method, we demonstrated the construction of electrocatalytic systems. In this lecture, we will report the design strategy of these approaches and show their distinct features in developing heterogeneous catalytic systems.