I will give an overview of x-ray experiments on electrocatalysts, based on our own work and on an analysis of published results. I will compare in-situ and ex-situ experiments on both model systems and on operando studies. The focus will be on x-ray absorption and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering experiments. Some recent time-resolved photo-electrocatalytic results will be discussed. I will compare x-ray spectroscopy with lab sources, synchrotrons and free-electron lasers.