This work investigates scalable synthesis and patterning of structured nanoparticles in polymer matrix nanocomposites using a chemical infusion technique as well as laser-assisted processing. A chemical infusion process using various metal and metal oxide precursors has been used to create functional nanoparticles in a solid polymer matrix. Under specific processing conditions, these nanocomposites consist of monodisperse nanoparticles distributed throughout the bulk of the polymer matrix. While patterned nanocomposites can be produced by applying a mask on the polymer matrix to physically hinder the precursor diffusion and the subsequent particle formation, a laser direct-write method using fiber-coupled laser sources with motorized stages is used to create various macroscopic patterns as well as complicated nanostructures. In particular, localized decomposition of supplementary precursor species in the immediate vicinity of the nanoparticles is achieved using laser irradiation, which results in the formation of secondary structures near the seed nanoparticles. Both continuous laser and femtosecond laser sources are used to study the temporal and spatial effects on producing patterned materials.