2, Departments of Radiology and Neurosciences, La Jolla, California, United States
3, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States
4, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
There is currently a surge in the development of neurotechnologies to aid in understanding brain function and in enabling new neuroprosthesis devices. Accompanying these advances is an increased awareness of the tissue and vascular strain and damage as well as the biofouling response to penetrating intraparenchymal/depth electrodes. Surface electrocorticography (ECoG) is viewed as a less invasive alternative that is not challenged by the cellular encapsulation and low spatial coverage of depth electrodes and is being investigated for brain-machine interfaces and in encoding cognitive functions. This paper will focus on the clinical translation of ECoG microelectrode arrays. First, we summarize their performance metrics for high fidelity recording and stimulation with in-vivo data that benchmarks different electrode materials across a variety of species. Second, we discuss the size dependency of recording single units from the cortical surface using these different microelectrode materials. Finally, we provide an update on the utility of the technology for recording in the clinic.