3, Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, Michigan, United States
2, Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, Illinois, United States
The industrial batteries are expected to have an operating lifetime of more than 5000 cycles over the time span for 10-15 years, however, they fail long before due to delamination at interfaces, strain in current collectors, and dendritic growth of lithium due to poor design. To understand the contribution of these parameters, we study the chemical and structural change in the battery, in situ, while it is going through the charging-discharging cycle (lithiation-delithiation). We used a Li-NMC commercial battery and tracked the expansion and contraction in the lattice for the cathode, anode and current collectors (copper and aluminum). We change the rate of discharging and look at the in-plane and out-of-plane deformation in the stacked layers of battery components. We conclude the factors affecting performance in the battery and propose a new design to maximize battery lifetime.