Titania (TiO2) is a promising anode material in lithium-ion batteries due to its environmental friendliness, abundance, and safety. It has been previously reported that the generation of point defects, such as oxygen and cation vacancies, in TiO2 has resulted in enhanced electrochemical performance1, 2. In this study, we aim to induce point defects in TiO2 nanotube electrodes through heat treatments in various atmospheres. Mott-Schottky analysis indicates that charge carrier density has increased due to oxygen-deficient atmospheres, suggesting oxygen vacancy formation. Crystallographic changes and defect production are also evident through decreases in peak intensity and peak shifts in the respective Raman spectra. The introduction of defects into the nanotube crystal structure results in changes in the charge storage behavior of the TiO2 electrode observed via electrochemical characterization. The defects created through atmospheric treatments at elevated temperatures may then lead to enhanced battery functionalities of TiO2 nanotube electrodes.
1. Swider-Lyons et al., (2002) Solid State Ionics, 152–153, 99–104.
2. Koo et al., (2012) Nano Letters, 12, 2429–2435.