Kathleen Moyer1 Adam Cohn2 Jennifer Donohue3 Cary Pint2

1, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States
2, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, United States
3, Binghamton University, State University of New York, Binghamton, New York, United States

Co-intercalation chemistry using sodium and potassium ions enable charge storage in graphite electrodes for alternative-ion battery chemistries. Using linear ether solvents (glymes) allows for reversible insertion and de-insertion of alkali ions coordinated by a glyme molecule into graphite electrodes. This unique chemistry boasts increased ion diffusivity in graphitic carbons while generating a large volume expansion (>250%). These unique features allow exploitation of this co-intercalation chemistry in systems ranging from low-power nano- and micro- actuators and energy harvesters to high rate batteries (>10 C with energy densities ~100 Wh/kg), which rival commercial supercapacitors. These results prove the viability of alternative-ion co-intercalation based batteries for use in low-cost, high-power applications.