Selenium and Tellurium are two special elemental materials which are 1D helical atomic structures and formed by van der Waals force between helical atomic chains. In this talk, we will report on the fundamental studies of these two new nano-materials at atomic scale in terms of their electrical, optical, thermal and mechanical properties. The helical atomic structure offers strong anisotropic properties of these 1D van der Waals materials. The band-structures of the materials themselves also offer some excellent materials properties such as highest Seebeck coefficient for selenium and high carrier mobility of 700 cm2/Vs for tellurium with demonstrated field-effect transistor drain current exceeding 1 A/mm. The work is in close collaborations with Prof. Wenzhuo Wu at Purdue University.