Three-D printing is a key technology that is set to change manufacturing in the so called fourth industrial revolution. While 3D printing has been demonstrated for many different materials for millimeter scale upwards, attaining smaller dimensions are still challenging. Two-photon stereolithography is one of the contenders for fabricating structures with micron- or sub-micron resolution. Generally, two-photon stereolithography is based on a photopolymerization reaction directly or indirectly initiated by a nonlinear optical molecule capable of simultaneously absorbing two-photons. When a near-infrared ultrashort-pulsed laser is closely focused into a volume of photoactive chemical medium (photoresist), real 3D microstructures can be fabricated using a layer-by-layer accumulating technique. In this lecture, high resolution patterns of polymers, ceramics, noble metals and semiconductors incorporated microstructures fabricated by two-photon-initiated polymerization will be presented. The 3D microstructures containing noble metals or semiconducting quantum dots are of great interest for applications in optoelectronics, photonics and biophotonics due to their ability to change the dielectric properties and refractive index of polymeric structures. In addition, recent developments of novel 3D cancer cell chips for the in vitro 3D cell growth simulation of tumor cells and the activity detection of anticancer drugs is also reported.