Supercapacitors have been extensively researched in recent years as candidates for energy storage devices, particularly for use in short-term high-power demands. Supercapacitors are now receiving attention for their use in low-temperature environments such as polar regions, high altitude locations (upper atmosphere), and in space exploration . Characterized by their fast charge and discharge times as well as excellent cycle stability, supercapacitors store energy via electric double layer capacitance (EDLC), which is largely dependent on electrode surface area. We have successfully developed a porous carbon electrode with a multi-scale pore network that exhibits excellent ion diffusion and an outstanding gravimetric capacitance of 374±7.7 F g-1 (at current density of 1 A g-1). The pore structure of this electrode material are being optimized to spiro-type quaternary ammonium electrolytes to improve capacitance at low temperatures. In order to extend both the low- and high-temperature limits of non-aqueous electrolyte supercapacitors, ethers with low melting points, high boiling points, and low viscosity are being tested as co-solvents in non-aqueous electrolyte systems.
 F. Zhang, T. Liu (co-first author), M. Li, M. Yu, Y. Luo, Y. Tong, Y. Li. Nano Lett., 2017, 17, 3097-3104