Microsupercapacitors, are a key component in on-chip technologies driving miniaturization and providing stable power supplies to electronic devices. State-of-the-art microsupercapacitors are produced in 2D electrode configurations, resulting in relatively low energy densities which have become the key limitation for these devices. Adding hierarchical 3D structure through a micron-sized electrode would provide a dramatic improvement in the power and energy stored within a single device. 3D printing provides a platform to achieve 3D architectures, and it has seen a limited development on the micron size scale. Beyond graphene, 2D materials, including the transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) family, are exceptionally promising materials for electrochemical devices due to their intercalation capacitance, high mechanical durability, chemical stability, and edge-site density. In order to utilize these attractive properties, spatial structuring is crucial. Here we report the first 3D printed architectures via robocasting of two-dimensional atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs)  demonstrating their use as miniaturized supercapacitors. The architectures are fabricated via direct printing of a liquid ink of chemically exfoliated 2D nanosheets.
The 3D printed architectures serve as electrodes for microsupercapacitors with mm2 footprints, 100μm feature size with mechanical robustness and chemical stability. They exhibit areal capacitance of 1450 mF/cm2 and an exceptionally high energy density of 0.5 mWh/cm2 which rivals and surpasses comparable devices. These devices and platform technologies have the potential to allow for an innovation in the emerging field of micronsized supercapacitors, enabling more efficient power sources for on-chip electronics.
 C. Grotta, et. al. "3D Printing of 2D Atomically Thin Materials", Submitted: October 2017