Dielectric properties are a challenge to measure for advanced capacitor development, since they necessitate macroscopic electrodes, pinhole-free films, and homogeneous specimens. Nanoscale dimensions are increasingly relevant, however, for multilayer, multicomponent, patterned, and generally heterogeneous capacitor designs. This motivated the development of an AFM-based approach for mapping capacitive charges and the associated local dielectric properties. The method is based on depositing charges with a known bias, followed by sequential mapping of the surface potential as it decays over time due to various dissipation processes and charge trapping energies and distributions. The results are demonstrated for oxide as well as polymer dielectric systems, revealing mcrostructure dependent charging and dissipation mechanisms. Ultimately such a nanoscale approach for mapping the local capacitance of dielectrics can provide novel insight into optimizing local dielectric performance, fundamental mechanisms near breakdown conditions, and cycling realiability.