Moritz Futscher1 Jumin Lee1 Lucie McGovern1 Bruno Ehrler1

1, AMOLF, Amsterdam, , Netherlands

Solar cells based on organic-inorganic halide perovskites have entered the research field of photovoltaics by storm, already reaching efficiencies close to highly optimized silicon solar cells. The high performance of these semiconductors has been attributed to their tolerance to defects, however, the exact nature, their quantification, and the effect of charge-carrier traps on material performance is still unclear. To understand the effect of charge-carrier traps we compare differently prepared perovskite devices, where we measure the trap distribution using deep-level transient spectroscopy and admittance spectroscopy. We show a correlation between fabrication conditions and the variety and the density of charge-carrier traps. Our results shed light on the strong influence on the exact fabrication conditions, and will help to develop more robust protocols for the fabrication of highly efficient perovskite devices.