2, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, , France
3, Nelumbo Digital, Crolles, , France
X-ray diffraction and X-ray imaging have for one century mostly been regarded as two distinct applications of the same type of radiation. Traditionally X-ray diffraction is considered as a method with poor spatial resolution yielding only spatial averages as useful results. Very recent developments in the use of highly focused beams produced on the most advanced synchrotron sources show however a great and rapidly developing potential of diffraction imaging techniques. These are much improving the resolution of traditional X-ray imaging and topography but are as well combined with X-ray diffraction. In this way a new portfolio of techniques emerges, coupling the information of strain and texture with spatial information. As so far most of these new imaging techniques are brilliance limited they are naturally developed at synchrotrons. With the rapid development of the availability of synchrotron and in interaction with the very active user community in this field, new imaging techniques rapidly gain practically all fields of materials science, chemistry and device physics. While X-ray optics typically limit today’s practical resolution to about 50 nm, technological progress in this field, as well as the use of reconstruction techniques pave already the way towards nanometric resolution in space while preserving the structural information available through diffraction. With new source projects at the horizon these exciting imaging techniques will be established on a growing number of beamlines.
With the completion of the first phase of the upgrade of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), several spectro-nanoprobes and diffraction imaging beamlines have returned successfully to user operation.
In the future, the field of diffraction imaging will supply unique information on the atomic structure of samples while preserving the operando capacity of X-rays with their penetration power and tolerance of sample environments.
The Talk will present the state of the art of scanning and full field diffraction imaging tools with examples of recent application in the imaging of semiconductor devices and applied materials.