2, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo, Japan
3, Academia Sinica, Taipei, , Taiwan
Coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) is a growing technique in photon science. CDI has been demonstrated to be a powerful tool for visualizing cells and organelles using synchrotron radiation. X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) with femtosecond pulse durations further extends the ability of CDI to achieve spatial resolution beyond the conventional radiation-damage limitation. We performed live cell nano-imaging using a Japanese XFEL facility, SACLA. We employed pulsed coherent X-ray solution scattering (PCXSS), a form of X-ray CDI, developed by our group [1,2]. A unique feature of PCXSS is to keep solution sample under a controlled environment in micro-liquid enclosure array (MLEA) chips. We succeeded in reconstructing a live cell image from a coherent diffraction pattern recorded with a single XFEL shot. The reconstructed image quantitatively revealed the internal structures, e.g. high image intensity structure indicative of dense DNA . PCXSS can also be effectively applied to nano-imaging of materials functional in solution. For example, we successfully imaged gold nanoparticle self-assemblies, developed as drug delivery carriers, in solution [3,4]. We also initiated industrial application of PCXSS in collaboration with Toyota Motor Corp . Furthermore, as recent developments in PCXSS, we report on time-resolved pump-probe measurement, temperature-controlled measurement, utilization of ~100-nm focused XFEL, etc.
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 T. Kimura et al., “Imaging live cell in micro-liquid enclosure by X-ray laser diffraction”, Nature Commum. 5, 3052 (2014).
 R. Iida et al., “Synthesis of Janus-Like Gold Nanoparticles with Hydrophilic/Hydrophobic Faces by Surface Ligand Exchange and Their Self-Assemblies in Water”, Langmuir 31, 4054 (2015).
 J. Wei et al., “Yolk/Shell Assembly of Gold Nanoparticles by Size Segregation in Solution”, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 138, 3274 (2016).
 R. Yoshida et al., “Extending the potential of x-ray free-electron lasers to industrial applications – an initiatory attempt at coherent diffractive imaging on car-related nanomaterials”, J. Phys. B 48, 244008 (2015).