Kristina Edstrom1 William Brant1

1, Uppsala University, Uppsala, , Sweden

Following phase transformations in battery electrode during the passage of lithium or sodium ions (or other mobile ions) as the redox process takes place during charge or discharge is fascinating. In operando X-ray and neutron diffraction have become standard techniques in studying the insertion reactions in lithium and sodium batteries. Despite this, there are constantly new challenges to tackle as alternate approaches to following dynamic processes in detail are explored. In this presentation, in house in operando X-ray diffraction experiments will be discussed using a study of two different cell chemistries, a lithium ion system including the positive electrode LiFeSO4F, and an aqueous sulfate Zn/MnO2 cell. Using these two systems as case studies, the advantage and disadvantage of battery cell-designs coupled with in house and synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction will be considered. Even more challenging is the development of in operando cells for neutron diffraction. While publications have focused on studying commercial cells the true test comes when constructing customs cells for new battery chemistries due to the quantity of material required for adequate neutron scattering. Here we compare two separate approaches to in operando neutron cell designs, a coin-type cell and a larger wound-type cell.