Nanofibrous materials, which are at the forefront of advanced fibrous materials, hold great promise in improving the performance and extending capabilities of products used in different fields. Electrospinning, a primarily route towards such objects, has become one of the most effective and versatile technologies for the large-scale production of nanofibrous materials. This report focus on the progress of electrospun nanofibrous materials for the application of water treatment achieved by our group in recent years, which are summarized as follows: (1) the two-dimensional nanonets with an extremely small diameter (< 20 nm) and small pore size were controllably fabricated via the novel electro-netting technique, and achieved its application in the fields of water purification, individual protection and health care. (2) In contrast to the brittle nature of ceramic nanofibers, various ceramic fibrous membranes (eg. SiO2, TiO2, ZrO2, etc) with unexpected softness have successfully been fabricated by synergistically optimizing the crystalline and porous structure of single fiber, which could be potentially used for the photocalytic degradation of water contaminant or the water treatment in extreme situations. (3) The hierarchical nanofibrous membranes with micro/nano roughness, regulable porous structure, and differentiated wettability have been prepared for the separation of the emulsified oil/water effluent with high efficiency and high flux. (4) The superamphiphobic and compact structured nanofibrous membranes have been fabricated through simultaneously regulating the tortuous pore structure and surface wettability, and the resultant membranes that is capable of selectively transporting aqueous water and water vapor exhibited promising application in the seawater desalination and water purification. Such progress might afford the possibility of moving beyond our current alternative to ensure sustainable lives for the future.