Yves Huttel1 Alvaro Mayoral2 Lidia Martínez1 José Miguel García-Martín3 Ivan Fernández-Martínez4 Mar García-Hernández1 Beatriz Galiana5 Carmen Ballesteros5

1, ICMM-CSIC, Madrid, , Spain
2, Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon (INA), Zaragoza, , Spain
3, IMN-Instituto de Micro y Nanotecnología (CNM-CSIC), Madrid, , Spain
4, Nano4Energy SLNE, Madrid, , Spain
5, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Madrid, , Spain

Since the seminal work of Haberland’s group [1], magnetron based gas aggregation sources (GAS) have been used in an increasing number of nanoparticles studies. As compared to other GAS, the magnetron based GAS have gained popularity probably thanks to their relative ease to use, and to the fact that the majority of the generated nanoparticles are charged which allows their manipulation (filtering and deflection) [2].

In this talk we will address issues not fully investigated nor understood of the magnetron based GAS. This includes the control of the race-track that is formed in circular magnetron sputtering through the use of a Full Face Erosion (FFE) magnetron that has been developed for the first time in GAS. We will show how such design allows a more stable generation of nanoparticles over extended periods of time. We will also address the use of High-Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HiPIMS) in GAS, focusing on its use for the generation of alloyed nanoparticles. In particular we will show for the first time that HiPIMS allows the generation of a variety of Co50Au50 nanoparticles not accessible in Direct Current GAS. Finally, we will address the assisted generation of nanoparticles by controlled injection of gases in GAS. Although already know, the injection of gases in the GAS that can have important effects on the generation of nanoparticles is not fully understood. Here we will present new results to illustrate the drastic impact of gas injection on the generation of Au nanoparticles in GAS.

[1] H. Haberland, M. Karrais, M. Mall, Zeitschrift für Physik D Atoms, Molecules and Clusters 1991, 413-415; H. Haberland, M. Karrais, M. Mall, Y. Thurner, Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films 1992, 10, 3266-3271.
[2] Gas-Phase Synthesis of Nanoparticles, Wiley, 2017, Ed. Y. Huttel.