2, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, Washington, United States
3, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, District of Columbia, United States
While the study of dopants in diamond has generated wide-ranging applications in emerging quantum technologies and enabled the study of presolar and planetary chemistry, the rational control and study of high-pressure, high-temperature doping has remained elusive due to diamond’s low diffusion coefficient and extreme synthesis conditions. Here, we present recent work using well-defined hydrocarbon molecules containing nitrogen- and silicon- heteroatoms to dope nanodiamond at extreme high-pressure, high-temperature conditions. The extreme conditions are created using a laser-heated diamond anvil cell to convert an amorphous carbon precursor material to a nanocrystalline diamond phase. Photoluminescence demonstrates that nitrogen and silicon heteroatoms are incorporated within the carbon precursor and are converted into luminescent color centers within the recovered nanodiamond product without the need for ion implantation. Silicon-vacancy defects are investigated as potential optical pressure sensors in order to illustrate the potential applications of this novel, bottom-up method for color center generation in diamond.