Hierarchical assembly of nanostructures is a significant challenge in nanotechnology. Several excellent strategies, including employing DNA linkers, block co-polymers or patchy particles, have led to exquisite nanocrystal assemblies. Nevertheless, most efforts have been focusing on the discovery and utilization of the primary structure and chemical functions of these specific (bio)molecules. The higher order structures of biomolecules which play important roles in biomaterial growth and assembly, however, remain largely unexplored in material structure creation. In this presentation, we will share the important roles of primary and secondary structures of biomolecules in both the morphology controlled synthesis of nanocrystals growth and their following anisotropic assembly into long-range hierarchical structures.