Colloidal semiconductor nanomaterials offer unique opportunities for electronic and photonic applications. However, many of these materials contain elements that are toxic, exhibit poor stability, or are chemically incompatible with a target application. A potential alternative to conventional quantum dots that could overcome these challenges are colloidal group IV semiconductors with nanoscale dimensions. Quantum-confined Group IV nanomaterials exhibit optical properties that can be tuned from the visible with potential for mid-infrared properties by modifying composition. Here, I will present our recent results related to the synthesis of Group IV alloy nanocrystals as well as atomically-thin sheets of Group IV materials (e.g., silicane) with unique optical properties. I will address synthetic challenges that are specific to Group IV nanomaterials, surface functionalization strategies, and our progress in characterizing the optical properties of these materials.